river basin

tap water 

artesian wells

village wells

methods

contact

 

 

Influence of chlorination on the drinking water quality in Ukraine in the 1990th

(Russian title:   )


This page shows the results of raw water and tap water controls in larger Ukrainian cities with focus on chlororganic compounds. In northern Ukraine (e.g. Kiev), all other dangerous compounds, as heavy metals and pesticides, occur less frequently in dangerous concentrations. Nitrate concentrations, exceeding the limits for drinking water (45 mg/L), were never detected in tap water originating from river water.

85 % of drinking water in Ukraine is taken from surface waters. After the usual disinfection of raw and drinking water (before and after treatment!), hundreds of different chlororganic compounds can be found.. It is not possible to analyse all of them, but their sum can be determined as AOX (adsorbable organic halogens).
The principle of the analytical
determination of chlororganic compounds is explained (in ENGLISH and RUSSIAN). (For other methods
, which have been used for analytical water controls see the overview).

Table 1 below gives a short overview of analytical results of irregular AOX control measurements of tap water. The data can only give first hints on the importance of the problem.

Tab. 1: results of AOX investigation program in Ukraine (guide value for AOX in the EU: 5 ug/L)

when

where

number of samples

AOX (mean)
ug/L

 

 

 

 

Dec. 1993

 Kiev

28

329

July 1996

Zaphoroshije

5

327

June 1997 

Odessa

2

266

June 1997

Slavutitch (from groundwater)

2

44

July 1997

 Kiev

11

311

Aug. 1997

 Sewastopol

1

521

Sep. 1997

 Lvov

3

170

Oct. 1997

Kirovograd 

1

431

Nov. 1997

 Kiev

2

157

Nov. 1997

Charkov

1

268

Dec. 1997

 Lugansk

1

362

 (winter) 1997/98

Kiev

10

140

(summer) 1998

Kiev

20

260

Feb. 1999

Kiev

7

80

May 1999

Kiev

2

159 / 202

June 1999

centre of Kiev

5

100 - 140

Sept. 1999

Kiev

32-132

May 2000

 Kiev, water from  Dnepr-water work

1

115 

 June 2000

Kiev, w. from. Desna- ww.

 1

 300

July 2000

Kiev, water from  Dnepr-ww

2

a) 113,  b) 137

Dec. 2000

Kiev, water from Dnepr-ww

3

a) 260; b) 330; c)440

 Mar. 98 - May 2000

raw water from river Desna

7

min-max: 15 - 167

Nov.97-Dec. 2000

Dnepr  (Kiev + K. reservoir)

11

min-max: 22 - 160 

In spite of efforts to reduce the concentrations of chlororganics in recent times (since 1999), the latest results of drinking water controls in Kiev still showed unacceptable AOX concentrations. Therefore it  can not be advised to use this drinking water for consumption. Among the compounds that are regularly identified in tap water are chloroform, chlorinated acetic acid. Higher concentrations of chloroform appear mainly during summer time and is therefore controlled more often.
It is necessary and urgently recommended to publish more analytical results on a regular basis in various media. The main reasons are:

1. the concentration of chlororganics is dependent from raw water quality. This quality changes often because phytoplankton content and concentration of humic matter are changing.
2. technological reasons: if several raw water sources are used in various quantities or if the treatment method was changed, AOX can be much higher or lower as a few days before. Unfortunately this happens, but mostly is not made known to the public.

The  figure below shows the effect of boiling. In former studies, similar results have been obtained: intensive boiling of tap water (if more than 5 minutes !!!) reduced the concentration of chlororganic compounds for about 32 %.

effect of boiling on drinking water

Fig. 1: AOX concentration in ug/L, case I, II, III before and after boiling of tap water water

About their effect on human health much literature can be found!

The effect of tap water on sensitive small test organisms,  Ceriodaphnia sp., has been studied in the laboratory. These animals usually die in tap water even after several days of storage and aeration. The results have been published recently in HOFFMANN, M.,  and RAKOV, V.I. (2003)  (see below). An English version is available here now, and a Russian and Ukrainian summary as well.

Summarising one can say that the contamination of tap water with chlororganic substances must still be considered as one of the most important health risk for the Ukrainian population.  

Literature:

1. Office of Drinking Water, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (19990): Risk Assessment, Management and Communication of Drinking Water Contamination. - Seminar Publication EPA/625-4-89/024

2. http://www.epa.gov/OGWDW/mdbp/chapter3.html (CLOSED)  new site: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/ccl/pdfs/ccl3_docs/Final%20PCCL%203%20Contaminant%20Information%20Sheets.pdf

3. http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/ottaway/dw_home1.htm (CLOSED)

4.  HOFFMANN, M.,  and RAKOV, V.I. (2003): An Investigation of the sensitivity of Ceriodaphnia affinis to City of Kyiv tap water. - Journal of Hydrobiology T. 39, No.4, Kiev ( in Russian).

An English version is published by Begell House, Inc. USA                                                                                      

 
   river basin         tap water      artesian wells      village wells      methods        contact

  and contact MH.   Tel. ++38   098 955 8916    last update Apr 2014