River catchments and related water quality
The first case shows the catchments of four KIEV city rivers delineated with the ArcView SWAT program.
These are the rivers (from left to the right): Nivka, Siretz, Libid,
Darnitza. The source area of the r. Darnitza is divided into 2
subbasins. The big river in the middle of Kiev, flowing from the North
to South, is the Dnepr with the reservoir in the North.
Fig. 1 Kiev City River basin delineation
second picture shows the storm water run-off canalisation system
connected to the river Siretz (scan from the "Ecological Atlas of
Kiev"). During rainy weather and snow melt the Siretz becomes heavily polluted.
Fig. 2: Rain water canalisation (thick black lines) connected to the r. Siretz in Kiev (flowing from South-West to North-East)
In times of dry weather, water looks quite clean and clear and its electrical conductivity decreases. Therefore, the smaller city streams show the following peculiarity: Source waters can be more polluted by agriculture, garden, cattle, etc. than the water downstream. Sedimentation in reservoirs,
self-purification and, maybe, dilution with cleaner drainage water improve the water quality
Fig. 3: Regular changes of electr. conductivity (medians 1997- 2000, n=96) between source (0 km) and mouth of river Nivka and Siretz
- Groundwater lakes in Kiev
Another type of water that is strongly influenced by soil characteristics are artificial sand and gravel pits in and around Kiev; they must be considered as "groundwater windows". The
aim of the study was to identify the origin of pollution, to make
recommendations for improvements and to assess the possible reduction
of nutrients inflow.
Fig. 4: Sand pit in Kiev and its catchment. A small area near the northern lakeshore (garages and workshops) has a negative influence on the water quality. West and south of the lake, forest is dominating.
The page underlines the importance of land use and soil types in the river basin on the surface water quality beside point sources (as polluted storm water).
This can have an effect on the inorganic and organic water chemistry in
general and on eutrophication that must be considered as one of the
main problems of water quality (in northern Ukraine) today.
Arbeitsgruppe Baggerseen der Dt. Ges. f. Limnologie (1996):
Untersuchung, Ueberwachung und Bewertung von Baggerseen - Empfehlungen
und Entscheidungshilfen der DGL. - Mitt., ISBN 3-9802188-7-2, 125
HOFFMANN, M. (1986): Untersuchungen zur oekochemischen Bewertung
organischer Stoffe im Grundwasser. - Vom Wasser, Bd. 65, 6 p.
HOFFMANN, M., and GALAGAN, A. (1999): Hydrochemical Investigations on
the Occurrence of Toxicological Relevant Matter in Rivers
and Drinking Water (in Russian). - Chemistry and Technology of Water,
2, p.154 - 166);
Original title: Хоффманн, М. и Галаган, А. (1999): Гидрохимические
исследования пространственного распределения загрязнения рек, подземных
вод и питьевой воды - Химия и технология воды, 2, ст. 154 - 166